dā : dǝ- and dāi- : dǝi- : dī̆-

    dā : dǝ- and dāi- : dǝi- : dī̆-
    English meaning: to share, divide
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “teilen, zerschneiden, zerreißen”
    Grammatical information: originally athemat. Wurzelpräsens.
    Material: O.Ind. dǘ ti, dyáti “clips, cuts, mows, separates, divides”, participle diná-ḥ, ditá-ḥ, composes ava-ttaḥ “ cropped, truncated, cut off “, díti-ḥ “the distributing”, dǘ nam “the abscission, trimming”, düná m n. “distribution, deal, portion”, dǘ tu n. “deal, portion”, dütá r- m. (= δαιτρός) “reaper, mower”, dütrá m “ allotted share “, dǘ tram n. ‘sickle”, Pers. düra “ remuneration “, düs ‘sickle”; O.Ind. dayǘ “ communion, concern, commiseration “ = dáyate (*dǝi-etai) “divides, possess lot, has pity; destructs “. Maybe nasalized form in Alb. (*dáyate) ndanj “cut, separate, allot, share”. Gk. δαίομαι med. “divide, allot, share” with probably after Fut. δαίσω and and the following words preserved ι (phonetic laws δάηται Konj. Ф 375 “ is destroyed “); δαίς, -τος, δαίτη, Hom. also δαιτύς, -ύος ‘share, meal, sacrifice, oblation” (: O.Ind. dǘ tu); δαιτυμών “guest” (as ‘serving the meal”), δαιτρός “ colter, plough coulter, pre-pruner. “ (: O.Ind. dütá r-), δαιτρόν ‘share” (: O.Ind. dütrá m; this αι of these Gk. words is partly according to phonetic laws - üi, ǝi - partly analogical, as in Cret. perf. δέδαισμαι to δατέομαι, compare also Cret. δαῖσις “division”, καρποδαισταί “ distributor of fruit “), δαίνῡμι “host”, probably also δαίμων m. “god, goddess; fate, destiny, person’s lot in life” (actually “ prorating; or “god of the dead as a corpse eater”, Porzig IF. 41, 169 ff., Kretschmer Gl. 14, 228 f.; about of Archilochos δαίμων “δαήμων” see below *dens- “ high mental power “); δαί̈ζω, Fut. -ξω, Aor. -ξα “divide, carve, slit, destroy” (due to *δᾰFό-ς “ sliced, destructed”), ἄ-δατος ἀδιαίρετος Hes., δάνος n. “interest, usury” (due to a participle *dǝ-nó-s = O.Ind. diná-ḥ, compare δάνας μερίδας); Gaul. arcanto-danos “ minting “ as “distributing silver”. With formants -mo- : dümos f. “people”: Gk. δῆμος, Dor. δᾶμος m. “( people’s division) people, area; the single region in Athens “, O.Ir. düm f. “ retinue, troop, multitude, crowd”, O.Welsh dauu “ boy, serf, servant “, Welsh daw, dawf ‘son-in-law”; apparently older fem. ostem; in addition Hitt. da-ma-a-iš (damaīš?) “an other, foreigner, stranger”, from “*foreign people”, originally “*people”, Pedersen Hitt. 51 ff. With formants -lo- perhaps O.C.S. dělъ “deal, portion” (*dǝi-lo-) (see under *del- ‘split”); about O.Ir. fo-dülim etc s. just there. Here belongs probably also Goth. dails “deal, portion”, runeninschr. da[i]liÞun “divide”, O.Ice. deill, O.E. dǣ l, O.H.G. teil m. “deal, portion”; Maybe Alb. dallonj ‘separate, distinguish” O.Ice. deila f. “division, disunion”, O.H.G. teila f. “division”; O.Ice. deila, O.E. dǣ lan, O.H.G. teilan “divide” etc It could hardly derive from Slav., probably it derives from Ven.-Illyr., because the root form *dǝi- is attested in sũdIllyr. PN Dae-tor. An additional form IE dhǝibesides dǝi- would be unplausible. With zero grade dī- : Arm. ti, gen. tioy “age, years, days, time” (* < dī-t(i)- or *dī-to-, *dītü), O.H.G. zīt f. (n. Isidor), O.S. O.E. tīd, O.N. tīð f. “time, hour” (*tīÞ-, IE*dī-t-, ursprgl “period of time”), in addition O.N. tīðr “ usual, ordinary, frequent, often”, O.E. tīdan “occur”, O.N. tīða “ aspire, strive”; O.N. tī-na “ to pick to pieces, take apart, weed, take out, remove, clean”; About Goth. til “ fitting” etc see under ad-2, but Goth. dails under del-3; here against it O.H.G. zila “ sequence, row, line”, Westfäl. tīle “ sheaf row “, Ger. Zeile, probably from *tīðlá-. p- extension düp-, dǝp-; dǝp-no-, -ni- “ sacrificial meal “: O.Ind. düpayati “divides”; Arm. taun (*dap-ni-) “festival”; Gk. δάπτω (*δαπι̯ω) “tear, rend, mangle, lacerate, disassemble “, with intensive reduplication δαρδάπτω “tear, rend, (κτήματα) squander, dissipate in luxury”, δαπάνη f. “expenditure, esp. arising from hospitality (: daps) “, δάπανος “ lavish, wasteful “, δαπανάω “ consume” (out of it Lat. dapinō ‘serve up (as food), provide for”), δαψιλός (Empedokles), δαψιλής “(* wasteful) exuberant, rich, generous “; Lat. daps “(*share) a sacrificial feast, religious banquet; in gen., meal, feast, banquet “, damnum “loss, damage, defect, fine”, damnōsus “ ruinous “ (*dap-no- : δαπάνη, different Pedersen Hitt 42); maybe Illyr. Epidamnos (Eppi- “*horse” + *dap-no “*sacrifice”), also Alb.Gheg dam (*dapno) “damage”: Lat. damnum. O.N. tafn (*dap-no-) “ sacrificial animal, sacrificial meal “, compare den Gmc. GN Tanfana (Tacit.), if from *tafnana, Marstrander NTS. 1, 159. From Gmc. one still adds a lot, what was a meaning-development from ‘split up, cut up, divide” to “tear, pluck, shortly touch, make short clumsy movement “ under likewise would assume; in following the meaning from δαπανᾶν, damnum derives aschw. tappa and tapa “ put an end to, lose”, O.Ice. tapa ds.; O.Fris. tapia “pluck”, O.E. tæppe f. “ cloth stripes “, M.Eng. tappen (Eng. tap) “hit lightly”, M.L.G. tappen, tüpen (lengthening in open syllable?) “ pick, pluck”; O.N. tǣ pr “ barely touching “, Ice. tǣ pta (*tüpatjan) “ just touch “, Nor. dial. tæpla “touch lightly, tread quietly”; but Nor. dial. taap(e) m., Dan. taabe “fool, rogue, awkward; clumsy person”, Nor. taapen “weak, feeble, ineligible “, tæpe n. “ insignificant; unimportant thing”, O.N. tǣ piligr “concise”, with other labial grades Swe. dial. tabb, tabbe “ gawk “, tabbet “ oafish “, are probably onomatopoeic words, also as N.Ger. tappe, Swiss tüpe, Ger. Tappe “ paw “, as well as tappen, täppisch etc; s. also under dhabh-1. Likewise are to be kept away O.H.G. zabalōn, Ger. zappeln, as well as O.H.G. zapfo, Ger. Zapfen, O.E.tæppa ds. (Gmc. *tappon-); also only Gmc. words with i and u (compare Specht Decl. 152 f.):M.Eng. tippen, Eng. tip “ touch quietly, bump quietly “, Ger. tippen, M.H.G. zipfen “(in swift movement) trip, scurry “, O.N. tifask “ walk on tiptoe; trip “, M.H.G. zipf “tip, cusp, peak”, nasalized M.L.G.timpe f. “tip, end”, O.E. ü-timplian “hold with nails”; on the other hand Nor. dial. tuppa, Ger. zupfen, O.N. toppr “ tuft of hair, summit, acme, apex “, O.E. topp m. “cusp, peak, crest, summit, tip “, toppa m. “ filament “, O.H.G. zopf “ pigtail, braid, plait, end of a thing “; M.L.G. tubbe, tobbe “ spigot “, tobben “pluck, rend “, sũddt. zöfeln “ waver “ (as zapfeln); perhaps here also O.H.G. zumpo “penis”, M.H.G. zumpf(e), Ger. Zumpt, whereat under dumb-. Here Toch. A tüp “ ate “, Van Windekens Lexique 187. t-extension dǝ-t- (compare but das participle dǝ-tó-s): Gk. δατέομαι “divide, tear, rend, consume” (Fut. δάσσεσθαι, Aor. Hom. δάσσασθαι, Att. δάσασθαι), wherefore δασμός “division”, δάσμα “lot”, common Gk.-Illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation δατήριος “dividing, splitting” (this certainly from *δᾰ-τήρ: O.Ind. dü-tár- “reaper, mower”), ἄδαστος “ undivided “; δατέομαι is Gk. neologism (Schwyzer Gk. I 676) and not IE *dǝ-t-; Goth. ungatass “ disarrayed, disorderly “ (compare ἄ-δαστος), M.Du. getes “be submitting, suitable “; O.H.G. zetten “(distributing) strew, outspread “, Ger. verzette(l)n, probably also O.N. teðja “ outspread dung “, tað n. “(* outstretched) dung”; O.H.G. zota, zata f. “ tuft of wool, hair hanging down together, filament or wool “ (therefrom zaturra “ a harlot, prostitute “), O.E. tættec (expressives tt) ‘scrap, shred, tatter, rag “, O.N. tǫturr ‘scrap, shred”; altDan. tothae, older Dan. and Dan. dial. tøde, taade “, retard, delay, hinder”. Besides with u-voc. O.N. toddi ‘small piece”, Du. todde ‘scrap, shred”, O.H.G. zota, zotta “ topknot “, Ger. Zotte, Zote; M.H.G. zoten “go slowly”, Ger. zotteln, E.Fris. todden “pull, tear, drag “ under likewise; about Ger. zaudern s. Kluge11 704. Toch. A tät-k “divide, carve, slit”. s-extension d-es-: O.Ind. dásyati “ suffers lack, swelters, languishes “, upadásyati “ goes out, is exhausted “; Nor. dial. tasa “wear out”, Swe. dial. tasa “ pluck wool, outspread hay “, N.Ger. tasen “pluck”, Ger. Zaser, older Zasel “ fibre, filament “, Nor. dial. tase m. “weak person”, tasma “languish”, tasa “ become feeble “; ablaut. Dan. dial. tæse “ work slowly “, N.Ger.täsen “ work heavily”, identical with Nor. Dan. tæse “ disentangle, wear out, pull out”; compare in similar meaning Nor. tasse “ go quietly “, taspa “ go slowly and sluggishly”, M.H.G. zaspen ‘scratch, go sluggishly “, O.H.G. zascōn “ seize, snatch, tear away “ (actually “drag”) = Ger. dial. zaschen, zäschen “drag, pull, tear, work slowly “, zäschen f. “ a train in the dress “; about O.H.G. tasca “pouch, pocket” s. Kluge11 612. Maybe truncated Alb.Gheg (*zascōn) me zanë “ to seize, snatch, tear away “ Hitt. tešḫü- “keep oneself away from” (3. sg. preterit ti-eš-ḫa-aš). Maybe Alb.Gheg (*tešḫü) tesha pl. “clothes, belongings, rags”, teshë ‘speck of dust, little splinter, torn piece” Besides with i-vocalism (IE *di-s as extension to dī̆ -? Or only Gmc. neologism?): Swe. dial. teisa, tesa “ pull to pieces “, Dan. dial. tese “pluck (e.g. wool)”, O.E. tǣ san “ pull to pieces “, O.H.G. zeisan, zias “ ruffle; tousle, pluck wool “; E.Fris. Du. teisteren “ rend “, O.E. tǣ sel, O.H.G. zeisala “ teasel “, Nor. dial. test “willow fibre, ringlet, hair lock “, with ī Nor.tīst “ fibre, filament “, tīsl “ shrubbery “, with ĭ M.H.G. zispen “go sluggishly” (as zaspen), probably also (?) O.E. teoswian “plague, disparage “, teoso “insult, deceit, malice”. Finally with u-vocalism: Nor. dial. tosa “rub, wear out, pluck”, also “flub, work slowly “, tose “frail person”, tos “ fibers, ragged rigging “, tossa ‘strew, distribute, outspread “, M.Eng. tōtūsen “tousle, ruffle”, M.L.G. tōsen “ rend, pull”, O.H.G. zirzūsōn “tousle, ruffle”, M.H.G. zūsach “ brushwood “, zūse f. “ brushwood, hair lock “ under likewise; perhaps to Lat. dūmus “ a thorn bush, bramble brushwood, shrub” (*dū̆ s-mo-s) and O.Ir. doss “bush”. From PIE this root passed to Altaic: Protoform: *dàma
    English meaning: ill, sick, bad Turkic protoform: *jAman Tungus protoform: *dam- Japanese protoform: *dàm-
    Note: Despite SKE 75 there is no reason at all to suppose a Chinese origin of the Turkic form (MC ja-mạn ‘savage, barbarian” is too distant semantically; the usage of PT *jaman for a bad disease, sickness is very close to Japanese and may suggest that the original meaning of the root was “ill(ness), sick(ness)”).
    References: WP. I 763 ff., WH. I 322, 323 f., 859; Schwyzer Gk. I 676.
    See also: out at least basically as extensions from dü- “cut, split” agreeable root del- ‘split”, del- “ whereupon it is split apart “, der- ‘split, flay” see under see under its own headwords.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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